VEOCEL™ Launches New Certification Criteria to Elevate Sustainability and Biodegradability

With the new certification scheme for its VEOCEL™ branded fibers, Lenzing establishes its fiber brand as a label of trust for eco-conscious consumers. Only personal care and beauty products made from 100% cellulosic and biodegradable fiber materials are now qualified to feature the VEOCEL™ logo.

Lenzing Group (Lenzing) unveiled the new co-branding certification criteria for its specialty nonwoven ingredient brand – VEOCEL™. From 1 July 2019, the VEOCEL™ logo will only be featured on personal care and beauty products made from 100% cellulosic and biodegradable fiber materials. This is an industry-first approach to establish a fiber ingredient brand as a label of trust, which aims to facilitate consumers in identifying sustainable nonwovens personal care and beauty products such as wipes, moist toilet tissues and facial sheet masks.

Lenzing, as a nonwovens fiber producer and advocate for sustainability, has taken an industry first step to enable consumers to make eco-conscious choices. Brands and retailers who intend to feature the VEOCEL™ logo on their personal care and beauty products may now only use blends of raw materials that are entirely cellulosic and biodegradable. Such valiant move further represents Lenzing’s commitment to offer sustainable solutions for consumers who would like to enjoy the convenience of single-use products with a clear conscience.

Reinforce the VEOCEL™ brand promise and the new certification criteria

“Natural circularity” – the brand promise of VEOCEL™, is based on three main pillars: botanic origin, environmentally sound production and biodegradability. VEOCEL™ branded fibers are made from the renewable raw material wood and produced through environmentally responsible processes. The fibers are fully biodegradable, endowed with the ability to break down safely and quickly and fully revert back to nature after disposal.

VEOCEL™ branded products range from fibers in personal care and beauty wipes, moist toilet tissues to facial sheet masks. The introduction of new certification criteria further upholds the VEOCEL™ brand’s label of trust promise, allowing only 100% cellulosic and biodegradable materials such as LENZING™ branded viscose, cotton and wood pulp to blend with VEOCEL™ branded fibers. Such stringent measures safeguard the label of trust commitment and benchmark of the VEOCEL™ brand, and consumers can be ensured that VEOCEL™ co-branded products are free from fossil-based materials and bio-plastics.

News

Dilo Group Focuses on Energy Saving, Sustainability and Industry 4.0

Dilo Group exhibited a complete operating production line at ITMA 2019. This line illustrated improvements and modifications as well as innovations in numerous machine design-engineering aspects.

The complete technological process starting with fibre preparation via card feeding, to precise web forming and the new Hyperpunch Hα needling shown at the exhibition.

We interviewed with Dilo Group General Manager Johann Philipp Dilo, who we visited at the booth during the ITMA 2019. Stating that they focus on sustainability, Industry 4.0 and environmentally friendly products, Philipp Dilo said that they are working on new products that will save energy.

Dilo Group exhibited a complete production line at ITMA 2019. Can you listen to the details and products of this line?

In the fibre preparation phase with DiloTemafa components, the “Baltromix Pro” showed a faster blend changeover which is a prerequisite for even higher throughput. An exact control of the filling level avoids idling or over-filling by feeding fibre bales with the aid of a “bale timer”. The sensor module “DI-LoWatt” assures fibre transport with a minimum of air and thus saves energy.

After the “VectorQuadroCard” the latest version of our high speed crosslapper “HyperLayer” included which allows highest throughput at small to medium layering widths and which is especially suited for hydroentanglement lines.

The needleloom on show – DI-LOOM OD-II SLHαV – is equipped with the new needle pattern 6000X to give a very homogeneous stitching distribution.

In the field of “textile additive manufacturing” the “3D-Lofter” offered further chances of fibre savings for needlefelts used in the automotive and other applications because topologically distributed fibre masses can be positioned in the felt where needed by so called “individual webforming spots.”

What are the advantages of assist operating system ‘diloline 4.0’?

“diloline 4.0” includes a wide variety of “smart manufacturing” actions in collaboration with Siemens which all aim at further simplifying operation, increasing transparency in web forming and consolidation thereby increasing efficiency. Production data are stored, documented and compared. An “alarm monitor” indicates disturbances. A production analysis documents the reasons for standstill times. This data can be used to avoid disturbances. Numerous information modules can be recalled via mobile apps and cloud data (mindSpheres). All these methods to control the machines and to generate production data will be helpful to further secure the complex functions within the production system independently of personnel and shift.

How does Dilo strive to deliver reliable and new machines?

When it comes to innovation, instead of adopting the classic approach of market research first, we think about what we can improve on our existing machines. We do our own research. So when we find an area that can be developed, we apply different models using our creativity. We first examine the idea we have found in different ways, and then exchange it with customers to launch the product. We have pilot customers with whom we work together during product development, in other words, customers who use our products for the first time. Then we gradually grow the idea into the market.

What have been your company’s biggest achievements over the past 12 months?

One of our biggest achievements is our fully functional needling line  which we exhibited at the ITMA. Dilo emphasizes the central position this technology takes in the worldwide nonwoven production. Needled products can be found in many applications such as floor covering, automotive interior linings, technical needlefelts,  filtration media, geotextiles, mattress, bed and upholstery, wipes and papermachine felts.  The needle pattern has changed in our new needle loom. This needle pattern allows you to get a much more regular service of the needle product. I consider that this a major breakthrough.

What is your company taking to adapt to sustainability in manufacturing?

Sustainability is an important term, an important issue, and we take this issue seriously. But we are in an area that involves the mechanical transformation of fibers into textile products. The mechanical solutions we have developed, such as carding, needling and cross bonding, are more consumer-friendly than previous solutions. We realized that 50% of the energy consumption was caused by fiber passing through tubes and we developed a new system that uses less electricity. With the reduction in energy requirements, we reduced the use of fans and continue to follow the process. By reducing the consumption in the tubes, we obtain the lowest energy consumption rate and the most efficient results.

If you assess in terms of export market, what is the importance of Turkey for your company?

Turkey has a great importance for our company and the textile industry. Because it is a very vibrant and very dynamic market. We know that the textile sector in Turkey is a powerful and innovative and constantly progressing. Of course there are ups and downs from time to time, but in the long run, there is a steadily increasing production, especially in the area of nonwoven fabric. Therefore, our sales and technical support teams have an office in Istanbul. In this way, we show that we stand behind our products in the market. We are continuously increasing our achievements and market share.

Interview: Dilek Hayırlı

Body Armor To Replace Over 1 Lakh Bulletproof Vests

Body Armor Direct, the number one online direct-to-consumer retailer of government certified body armour has announced a new initiative to replace over 100,000 non-government certified ballistic vests currently in use across US by law enforcement, security personnel and others. Body Armor Direct’s armours are certified by National Institute of Justice.

“Our factory is subject to the compliance test programme. This allows the government to inspect and test our body armour vests at an independent ballistic laboratory to ensure they continue to perform as expected. Whereas non-government certified compliant body armour has no formal oversight,” said Dave Goldberg, chief executive officer, Body Armor Direct in a press release by the company. “Our team is working to educate consumers on the benefits of certified vests by the National Institute of Justice vs non certified compliant body armour vests.”

Body Armor Direct was founded in January 2018 by Dave Goldberg with the mission to save lives. The company sells direct on its website and does not have the traditional dealer, distributor or manufacturers representative network. It offers standard products in standard sizes and all products are Made in US. Customers include the federal government, state and local agencies, corrections, private security companies, schools, churches, hospitals, hotels, lawyers, doctors, athletes, celebrities, businesses and the general public nationwide.

News: Fibre2Fashion

Archroma To Introduce New Water-Based Ultra-Low Voc Coating Technology

Archroma, a global leader in color and specialty chemicals towards sustainable solutions, has launched at the recent ITMA exhibition its new Lurapret® N5396 & N5392 liq, a water-based ultra-low VOC polyurethane (PU) polymer coating technology.

The innovation was developed in compliance with “The Archroma Way: safe, efficient, enhanced, it’s our nature”. The approach finds its origin in Archroma’s deep belief that it is possible to make the textile industry sustainable, economically and ecologically.

Coatings are used in the textile industry to achieve features such as waterproofness, flexibility, durability and UV resistance. With the growing demand for safer and more ecological products, water-based PU coatings are progressively prevailing as the preferred coating technology.

Lurapret® N5396 & N5392 liq have been developed to provide textile manufacturers with an additional water-based option that delivers high performance to the coated fabrics of demanding applications, such as indoor and outdoor textiles, nonwovens and papers.

Initially developed for the chemical bonding and coating for backpack and other industrial products, Lurapret® N5396 & N5392 liq also improve the mechanical properties of the treated material such as their tensile strength and scratch resistance.

The new products will be the core of Archroma’s Safe Seats system. The system, which combines Lurapret® N5392 & N5396 liq with Archroma’s halogen-free* Pekoflam® STC p flame retardant, allows to create a halogen-free* flame retardant coating system for synthetic leather upholstery.

Using Lurapret® N5396 & N5392 liq together with Archroma’s Nuva® N2155 & N4547 soil protection and release finishes, enables customers to achieve highest standards in water-repellence and waterproofness.

Lurapret® N5396 & N5392 liq can be applied by impregnation, coating (paste or foam), and spray, and are compliant with the ZDHC and bluesign® requirements.

“The new Lurapret® N5396 & N5392 liq coating polymers perfectly illustrate Archroma’s commitment to challenge the status quo in the deep belief that we can make our industry sustainable”, says Thomas Seeger, Global Business Development Manager for Finishing, Brand & Performance Textile Specialties, at Archroma, whilst at the same time helping our customers to develop high performance textile articles and added value for their business. That is what The Archroma Way is about. Because it’s our nature!”

* Below limits of detection
Lurapret®, Nuva® and Pekoflam® are trademarks of Archroma registered in many countries.
© 2019 Archroma

Kelheim Fibres

Kelheim Fibres wins World of Wipes Innovation Award

During the World of Wipes in Atlanta, the Bavarian manufacturer of viscose speciality fibres has been presented with the World of Wipes Innovation Award.

The award recognizes the newly developed Danufil®QR fibre, a positively charged viscose fibre, that was specifically designed for use in disinfectant wipes: Danufil® QR is the only viscose fibre worldwide that – in contrast to standard viscose fibres – binds less than 10% of “quats” (quarternary ammonium compounds), so that this common disinfectant can release its intended effect in the wipe. Danufil® QR fibres are completely made of renewable cellulose and therefore fully biodegradable. They can be easily processed with all nonwovens technologies.

The annually presented WoW Innovation Award honours products that both expand the use of nonwovens and demonstrate creativity, uniqueness, and technical sophistication. The unique thing about the award: One third of the votes comes directly from the WOW attendees.

“Product innovations have a right to exist only if they work in practice and if they create added value. Therefore, we are particularly pleased about this approval from the industry”, says Matthew North, Commercial Director at Kelheim Fibres.

North also takes the award as a confirmation of the company’s strategy: After a large fire in October 2018, Kelheim Fibres is currently rebuilding their fibre production site.

“We seize the historic opportunity to rebuild our plant with state-of-the-art technology and to meet the latest environmental standards. At the same time, we use the resulting slow-down in production to focus our energy even more on new fibre developments and process improvements. “Coming back stronger” remains our motto!”

WOW 2019

INDA’s World of Wipes® 2019 International Conference Provided Valuable Connections and New Ideas for a Circular Economy

INDA, the Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry, reports its 13th annual World of Wipes® (WOW) International Conference connected 390 participants from 19 countries to advance their wipes business in Atlanta, GA, June 24-27.

WOW provided valuable program content with the latest innovations and presentations from industry leaders on issues, market trends, and statistical data to plan business strategies as well as a 1.5-day WIPES Academy training course.

“World of Wipes was a great experience and a productive meeting for us.  We are looking into the other upcoming INDA programs, and especially intend to be at WOW again next year,” said Howard J. Bochnek VP – Technology and Scientific Affairs, North American Infection Control Ltd. and American Infection Control, Inc.

“It’s worth coming every time.  I met customers and made some new ones,” said Jay Roth, Director of Sales, Elsner Engineering Works, Inc.

Among the event highlights was the announcement of Danufil® QR Fibres from Kelheim Fibres as the winner of this year’s World of Wipes Innovation Award®. The innovative new fiber is a positively charged viscose fiber that does not bind to “quat” disinfectants, can be processed with all nonwoven technologies, and is fully biodegradable. The annual award recognizes the product that most expands the use of nonwovens and demonstrates creativity, novelty, uniqueness, and technical sophistication within the entire nonwovens wipes value chain.

Held at the Westin Peachtree Plaza, in Atlanta, Georgia, the event attracted 54 tabletop displays to connect and create commerce with meaningful relationships throughout the entire wipes supply chain.  “The strength and value of the World of Wipes event was clearly demonstrated at the tabletop display evenings when exhibitors and conference attendees continued their conversations well after the exhibition concluded—people were so engaged they didn’t want to leave,” said Dave Rousse, INDA President.

Program sessions included Consumer Trade and Trends, Sustainable & Transparent Formulations for Home & Personal Care Products, Infection Protection, Material Developments in Wipes, Sustainability Challenges in Single Use Plastics, and Preservative Developments.

Featured speaker, Lisa Morden, Vice President, Safety and Sustainability, Kimberly-Clark Corporation and Tracy A. Doucet, Senior Director, Research and Engineering, Kimberly-Cark Global Nonwovens presented “Wiping Responsibly” featuring insights into Kimberly-Clark’s methods to create a more circular model for a sustainable future.

Participants connected face-to-face with hundreds of wipes professionals during the Welcome Reception atop the 49th floor in The Commerce Club, with stunning views and live music, to connect with fellow industry professionals.

Preceding the conference, INDA’s WIPES Academy was conducted by instructor Rob Johnson, PE, Principal, Smith, Johnson & Associates. The Academy is the first and only comprehensive wipes training for the entire wipes supply chain.

“This year’s program content addressed the critical issues of our industry—economics, sustainability, and political issues facing wipes producers and marketers. WOW serves as the nexus for international wipes professionals to convene and connect,” said Dave Rousse, INDA president.

Other presentation highlights included:

  • How to Navigate the Amazon Jungle – Richard Palmer, President, Nehemiah Manufacturing Company
  • Global Market for Baby Care Today and Tomorrow – Janet O’Regan, Director, Nonwovens Marketing, Cotton Incorporated
  • Driving the Market Through Ingredient Transparency – Nicole Acevedo, Ph.D., Founder & CEO, Elavo Mundi Solutions, LLC
  • Industrial Wipes: Market Driven Innovations – Paul Harmon, EVP Commercial HH&S, Berry Global, Inc.
  • Consumer Insights in Sustainable Materials – Jonathan Layer, Business Development Manager-Americas, Fibertex Nonwovens Inc.
  • A New Sustainable Cellulosic Fiber Option for Nonwovens– Jon Woods, General Manager, Textiles and Nonwovens, Eastman Chemical Company  

WOW networking events included two evening receptions, daily breakfasts, and networking breaks.

INDA announced that WOW 2020 will be held June 22-25, at the Hyatt Regency Minneapolis, in Minneapolis, Minnesota. For information visit www.worldofwipes.org and follow @WipesCon on Twitter.

H&M Garment Collection Program Makes Great Contribution to Recycling

Introducing the Garment Collection Program in Turkey, a project aiming to contribute to recycling, H&M seeks a sustainable fashion for the future. The Swedish-based H&M’s garment collection program has been launched all over the world.

The Garment Collection Program, a global initiative launched by H&M for the future of a sustainable fashion, makes a major contribution to recycling. All kinds of clothes, which are no longer used, torn, cut, removed, one pair lost or not liked anymore, are taken to the H&M stores to give them a new life and contribute to the ecosystem.

Announcing the campaign with the slogan “Bring It” to prevent fashion from being thrown away, H&M emphasizes that it does not matter whether the garments are too much worn out for the second chance. Even old, torn or faded home textile products are also included in the campaign. In this program, the garments are first collected and classified, and then sent to the relevant process according to their classification.

The program consists of 3 phases, which are:

Wear Again

In this phase, which is designed to prevent the re-wearable garments to be wasted, the products continue to be used to reduce waste production with the zero waste approach.

Reuse

Garments, which can no longer can be used, are decomposed into new products. These products, which have lost their ability to be reused, are recycled without being wasted.

Recycle

H&M’s message for this class is as such:

“Put the garment you don’t use anymore in a plastic bag and put it in the recycle bin at the nearest store. Regardless of their brand and condition, all kinds of textiles including socks with lost pairs, worn out t-shirts and old linens are accepted. Products are sent to the nearest recycling facility and separated by hand. For each textile product bag you leave, you will be entitled to receive a discount coupon, which you can use for your next exciting purchase.”

Fabrics, which cannot be reused, have a second chance to be used as textile fibers or are used in the manufacture of insulation and humidifying materials for the automotive industry. All the income from the collected garments is donated to the textile recycling researches and social responsibility projects.

So what happens to the donated textile products?

By using reverse logistics, the collected garments are taken to the company’s warehouses and collection points. The solution partner, I:CO, takes the collected garments from these locations and takes them to the nearest separation place.

The collected products are categorized and separated, and the reusable ones are given to people who need them. Then, the non-reusable ones are turned into cleaning cloths and advanced recycling products. And some of them are ground and used as filling material in the construction and automotive industries. Some products are given a second chance to be used as textile fibers. These are made into yarns and used in H&M Conscious products.

Nothing is wasted during this process. Even buttons and zippers are spearated and recycled. Even the dust that come out is used. They are turned into cube-shaped cardboard by-products to be used in the paper industry. The last remaining percentage are burned and turned into energy.

Textile Recycling Contributes Greatly to Economy and Environment

Recycling has gained importance with the problems caused by industrialization such as the depletion of natural resources and the increase in environmental pollution. Efforts to improve recycling in the textile industry, second to the petroleum industry in polluting the world, has gained momentum day by day.

Textile waste consists of wastes from artificial yarn factories, textile manufacturing wastes and consumer wastes. Organizations, which aim to produce global solutions for the textile and apparel industries are working on the reuse and recycling of textile wastes.

Intensive efforts are being made for the reuse of almost 100% of textile products as it bears a great importance. For example, denim products may contain up to 20% recycled cotton fibers. More technological innovation is needed in ordeer to increase this rate without compromising quality. In the recycling of denim products, unused denim products are disintegrated until they turn into fibers. Most of these fibers are used as insulating material while the rest of them is mixed with unused fibers to produce new fabrics.

Recycling Helps Reduce Carbon Footprint

Recycling facilities are needed to use clothes for recycling. A recycling facility can be established if 500 tons or more textile products can be collected on a daily basis. Natural resources are conserved, energy saving is achieved, waste amount is reduced, economy is contributed, and more investment can be made for the future all thanks to the waste recycling.

To produce a simple T-shirt and jeans, 8 tonnes of water is consumed. At the same time, an unpredictable amount of chemical materials and energy are used to turn fabrics into apparels. A large amount of chemicals are releaed into the environment from fabric dyes used in the production of conventional cotton or clothes with numerous colors. Recycling this large amount of water and energy starts by adding the unused clothes to the production cycle.

The carbon footprint, which shows the amount of carbon used per person released to the environment is reduced by recycling the clothes in the production cycle. This way, a contribution is made for the environment. Habits like walking or cycling instead of driving or using public transportation instead of private cars, and recycling old clothes help reduce the carbon footprint. Recycling a single pair of jeans helps reusing of 32 kgs of carbon released into the air and 400 MJ of energy in production, thus helping keep the carbon emission remain steady rather than increased.

How to Recycle Textiles?

Textile recycling is almost identical to the recycling of other substances and undergoes the same processes. First of all, the wastes obtained from manufacturers and consumers are placed in a certain order according to the fabric color and type. A correct classification is the most important part in recycling.

In case of an error, products obtained from recycling may also differ. New substances obtained from certain processes are sold to the new buyers according to the differences of usage and reintroduced in the economy.

Fabric Recycling

Fabric recycling is riskier than other recycling areas and requires more labor. There is more intensive competition in fabric recycling. The color and amount of foreign substances in the fabric are the most important factors in the recycling process. The more severe a waste has, the more time it takes for the recycling workers, and requires more careful work. Color of fabric is also important. The more dye a fabric includes, the less valuable it becomes, and it turns into a waste difficult for recycling.

Biodegradable Nonwovens And Application Areas

Deniz Duran1, Hatice Aktekeli2

1,2 Ege University – Faculty of Engineering – Textile Engineering Department.

Abstract

The rapid increase in the world population leads to the depletion of our natural resources and to the increase of environmental pollution. In recent years, many studies have been carried out to produce alternative solutions to these problems. Community awareness is growing and accordingly, interest is growing towards safe, biodegradable synthetic materials that are either recyclable or that do not harm the environment. In this study, the researches about the polylactic acit(PLA), which are obtained by using natural based raw materials which are self-destructive in natüre, and PLA’s usage areas.

1.Introduction

Population growth and industrialization in the world has brought environmental problems. For this reason, sustainability has become an important issue of the whole world in recent years. The textile industry is also in search of solutions that support sustainability, from raw material selection to production methods, like many other industrial areas(Erten, 2004; Kalaycı et al., 2016).

Petroleum-derived raw materials, which take many years of decay in nature and when they start to deteriorate, causing to emit harmful chemicals to the environment and slowly pollute our food chain, as well as the non-renewable energy, are a serious threat to their living life as well as environmental pollution. In this context, the use of natural based raw materials instead of petroleum based synthetic fibers is one of the methods that can create an alternative to sustainable textile production. For this reason, biodegradable polymers which do not harm the environment and which can disappear without leaving waste in nature are important(Kalaycı et al., 2016; Çebin, 2016).

Polylactic acid (PLA) is the most commonly used biodegradable polymer in textile industry.

2.Polylactic Acid (PLA)

Polylactic acid(PLA), a repeating unit of lactic acid, is a polymer entering the group of aliphatic polyesters. One of the most important characteristics is that it is a biodegradable and compostable thermoplastic polymer produced from starch rich vegetable sources such as corn, sugar cane and wheat.

The lactide monomer forming the polylactic acid can be produced by carbohydrate fermentation or chemical synthesis. Produced lactic acids today are produced by fermentation. PLA polymer is made by ring opening polymerization mechanism. By this method, high molecular weight PLA is obtained(Ray, 2005).

General Features of PLA

  • PLA is synthesized from renewable sources.
    • PLA is a 100% biodegradable polymer. In nature, it disappears spontaneously in a short period of time such as 0-2 years.
    • PLA is an ecological polymer that can decompose in nature without any danger and does not contaminate the soil during its degredation.

PLA Degradation

The degradation of the PLA in nature takes place in 2 steps:

  1. High molecular weight (Mn> 4000) chains are hydrolyzed to low molecular weight oligomers (the reaction continues by accelerating with the addition of acid or alcali and the effect of temperature and humidity).
  2. When Mn <4000, the microorganisms in the environment continue to deteriorate by releasing smaller molecular weight compounds such as carbon dioxide,  water and humus(Farrington et al., 2005).

3. Nonwoven Surface Production Techniques

Polylactic acid polymers can be applied to the surface with nonwoven surface technologies and they are widely used. For this purpose, needling and melt blowing methods are mostly used.

3.1. Needle punching method

In the needle punching method, fiber bundles are fed to the cards by air flow after opening and blending. After the carding, with the structure called camel back, the web comes to the laying and folding band and is laid on top according to the desired thickness. Needling is carried out throughout the thickness of the web which is formed by the unbonded fiber. The notched needles move the fibers from one face of the web to the other face to form a complex structure, during the needling, some of the fibers and filaments move up to the needles and another part remains in place and the fibers are pulled down with repeatedly immersed needles. In this way, mechanical bond of the fibers is carried out.

3.2. Meltblowing method

The most common and current definition used for the meltblown method is the one-step process, also it is surface forming method by the way of the thermoplastic raw material is melted in the extruder and self-bonded by spraying the microfibers onto the cylinder from nozzle with high-speed air flow.

Polymer material being melted in the extruder, is sprayed through the nozzle holes with high speed hot air flow and the micro-size fibers are cooled and solidified as they move towards the collection cylinder. The solidified fibers form a randomly oriented non- woven surface in the collection cylinder. Due to the turbulence created by the air flow, the fibers are placed highly complex. Usually a vacuum placed in the collector retracts hot air(Duran, 2004).

4.Usage Areas of Biodegradable Nonwovens

Nonwovens produced by biodegradable PLA which is obtained by using needling and melt blown techniques find a wide range of applications. Textile fibers can be used for growing different human organs. This process involves the planting and  cultivation of cells living in human organs on a textile scaffold. This skeleton consists of biodegradable polymers made of biocompatible and degradable polymers and fibers such as biodegradable PLA.

Apart from these, applications where PLA fibers are used in medical field are given below:

  • Special membranes for use in nerve injuries,
    • In parts which can be implanted to the body,
    • In controlled drug release systems,
    • Bandage, wound closure etc. materials (Farrington et al., 2005). It is also used as top layer and additive layers in the diaper and women’s hygiene market due to its elastic properties.

PLA has the opportunity to be applied in the automotive field.

  • In 2003, PLA was used as a floor covering for Toyota Raum and Prius models. Here, the last group of PLA was closed to prevent hydrolysis.
    • In 2008, PLA fiber was used for the Mazda door sill.
    • Mitsubishi used a floor covering with Nylon 6 and PLA fibers in a special production vehicle (Auras et al., 2010)

In the agricultural field, PLA is used in applications such as sandbags, weed prevention networks, plant nets and pots. Important features for such applications; it is the process of maintaining structural integrity during use and degradation under the soil after use (Üner and Koçak, 2012).

  • Conclusion

In recent years, many studies have been carried out in order to generate alternative solutions to the rapid growth of the world population, the depletion of our natural resources and the increase of environmental pollution. Accordingly, there is growing interest in safe, biodegradable synthetic materials that are either recyclable or that do not harm the environment.

In the production of nonwovens can be produced in a short time and at a more affordable cost since it does not contain the stages such as yarn preparation, warp preparation, finishing process and so on. In recent years, the importance of biodegradability in the production of nonwovens with the use of mostly petroleum-derived raw materials has started to be used in the self-destructing raw materials in nature.

In the result of these, researchers are conducting research on the use of these environmentalist raw materials in a wider field. Thanks to their superior fiber properties, the use of these environmentally friendly fibers, which are expanding day by day, is expected to become more widespread.

References

Auras, R., Lim, L.T, Selke, S.E.M., and Tsuji, H., 2010, Poly(lactic acid): Synthesis, Structures, Properties, Processing, and Applications, A John Wiley & Sons,Inc., Publication.

Çebin B., 2016, Plastik Poşet Kullanımının Çevreye Verdiği Zararlar, (Erişim Tarihi: 10 Mayıs 2017).

Duran, K., 2004, Dokusuz Yüzeyler, Teknik Fuarcılık Yayınları, İzmir, 408s.

Erten, S., 2004, Çevre Eğitimi Ve Çevre Bilinci Nedir, Çevre Eğitimi Nasıl Olmalıdır?, Çevre ve İnsan Dergisi, Çevre ve Orman Bakanlığı Yayın Organı, 65-66.

Farrington, D. W., Lunt, J., Davies, S., Blackburn, R. S., 2005, Biodegradable Sustainable Fibers, Chap-6,Poly(lactic acid) fibers, 191-220.

Kalaycı, E., Avinc, O. O., Bozkurt, A., Yavaş, A., (2016). Tarımsal atıklardan elde edilen sürdürülebilir tekstil lifleri: Ananas yaprağı lifleri. Sakarya Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, 20(2), 203-221. Ray S.S., Bousmina M., 2005, Biodegrable Polimer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites, Progress in Materials Science, Vol. 50, No. 8. Tipper, M., Gullemois, E., 2016, Advances in Technical Nonwovens, Developments in the use of nonofibers in nonwovens, 115- 132.

Üner, İ., Koçak, E.D., 2012, Poli(Laktik Asit)’in Kullanım Alanları ve Nano Lif Üretimdeki Uygulamaları, İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi, 11(22), 79-88.

URL-1: www.total-corbion.com/about-pla/pla-lifecycle/, (Erişim Tarihi: 29 Ağustos 2018). URL-2: www.nptel.ac.in, (Erişim Tarihi: 17 Ağustos 2018).




Solar Cells Embedded Clothes Can Charge Mobile Phone

Scientists from Nottingham Trent University have developed a technology to embed miniaturised solar cells into yarn that can then be knitted and woven into textiles. This can lead to clothing embedded with tiny solar cells the size of a flea which will allow wearers to generate electricity on the move and charge items like mobile phones and smartwatches.

The technology has been tested and proven to charge a mobile phone and a Fitbit. The cells are encapsulated in a resin which allows the textile fabric to be washed and worn like any other form of clothing. Measuring only three millimetres in length and 1.5 millimetres in width, the cells are almost invisible to the naked eye and cannot be felt by the wearer. For all intents and purposes, garments appear exactly the same as any other form of clothing despite having the capability to generate electricity. Project lead Professor Tilak Dias, of the School of Art and Design, said: “By embedding miniaturised solar cells into yarn we can create clothing and fabric that generate power in a sustainable way. The clothing would look and behave like any other textile, but within the fibres would be a network of miniaturised cells which are creating electricity. This could do away with the need to plug items into wall sockets and reduce the demand on the grid while cutting carbon emissions. The electrical power demand for smart e-textiles has always been its Achilles heel and this technology will allow people to use smart textiles while on the move,” Dias added.

Up to 200 miniaturised cells can generate 2.5-10 volts and up to 80 miliwatts in power. The university’s Advanced Textiles Research Group made a proof of concept textile of 5cm by 5cm size with 200 cells.

This proved powerful enough to charge a mobile phone and a Fitbit. Researchers say if 2,000 solar cells were incorporated into a textile it would generate enough power to charge a smart phone.

Researcher Achala Satharasinghe, who developed the prototype as part of his PhD at the university, said: “This is an exciting technology which could revolutionise the way we think about solar power, clothing and wearable technology. With the availability of miniaturised solar cells we can generate power in a range of new ways, by utilising things like clothing, fashion accessories, textiles and more. It will allow mobile devices to be charged in environmentally-friendly ways which are more convenient for consumers than ever before,” Satharasinghe said.