Type Of Lotion To Be Used In Infant Clothes And Improving Product Performance Based On Application Area

Çağla Bektaş / Senior R & D Engineer – Chemical Engineer

Evyap Sabun Yağ Gliserin Sanayi ve Ticaret Anonim Şirketi

ABSTRACT

Today, disposable diapers are high performance products designed to keep the sensitive baby skin dry and healthy. Diapers are basically composed of nonwoven fabric in contact with the skin, disintegrated cellulose and biologically inert polymers. Diapers may contain additional raw materials such as lotions, perfumes and/or creams depending on consumer preference. Considering the sensitivity of the baby skin, the compatibility of these raw materials with the skin and its performance on the finished product are of paramount importance. In this study, parametric studies have been conducted on lotion and/or perfume type, application system, application area and optimization of odor density on diaper. According to the study result, in addition to suppressing the odor after using the diaper, it was made possible to provide the diaper for consumers by minimizing the amount of wetness released to the skin from critical performance parameters.

 

Key Words: Diaper, lotion, perfume, lotion application, perfume application, diaper performance, odor density, perfume, cream

 

INTRODUCTION

One of the most important consumer products in the 20th century is smaller, cheaper, more useful and more environmentally friendly disposable diapers. [1]

As a result of the development and commercialization process, which started as a mere cellulose layer, today diapers comprise various parts such as a breathable/nonbreathable backsheet that forms the outer layer of the diaper and prevents the urine from infecting the baby’s clothing, a topsheet –the top layer of the diaper in contact with the baby skin–, adhesive side tapes used to attach the diaper to the baby, frontal tapes, where the side tapes adhere to each other when the diaper is dressed on the baby, elastic&nonelastic back ears with side tapes, the absorption and distribution layers placed under the topsheet (ADL; acquisition / distribution layer,) leg cuffs (barriers) used to prevent the urine from overflowing from the legs and the elastic leg barrier used in the backsheet, the superabsorbent polymers (SAP) used in the absorbent core layer, the pulp (cellulose) to provide a homogeneous distribution of the SAP particles on the absorbent core layer in the absorbent core layer, the nonvowen/tissue core cover which holds the SAP and the pulp together, the front ear which makes it easier for the mother to hold the baby while dressing, and the lotion specially developed to prevent bad smells after using the diaper and all the glue raw materials that make all these components stick to each other.

A Typical diaper layers are shown in Figure 1. [1]

 

 

Figure 1: Layers of a typical diaper

Diapers have the basic features that consumers expect, such as not causing rash, dryness, absorbency, resistance to long-term use, and minimizing bad odors after using. The lotion applications used in diapers help the diaper to suppress the bad odors after using, as well as affect the critical performance characteristics such as the duration of urine-sucking (strike throught time) and the amount of wetness released from the wet diaper to the skin depending on the type of lotion used and the application area. For this purpose, perfumes or cream applications can also be used.

In the study shared in Figure 2, perfume areas (85) were created in the backsheet layer (26) with the diaper’s outer surface to ensure that urine does not pass through the baby’s undergarment in order to suppress the bad odor in the diaper. Perfume areas have binders (82), which contain perfume releasing agents (65). Binders are attached to the outer surface (52) of the backsheet raw material. The perfume releasing agents and the binder are also protected by a strip (80), which separates them from the outer surface. The pulling strip preferably comprises a material containing polyethylene, polypropylene, nonwoven and/or a cellulosic substance. When this strip is removed, the separating agents make an odor explosion and/or a constant state diffusion. Perfume releasing agents may also provide a mechanism for entrapping the odor into the microcapsule in the urine. [2]

 

Figure 2: A side view of the perfume area showing a type of microcapsule before separation of the pulling strip from the perfume area (Fig. 2), a side view of the perfume area during separation of the pulling strip from the perfume area (Fig. 2A) [2]

Looking at the working principle of the microcapsule technology shown in Figure 2; it can be seen that it works by releasing the perfume out when the diaper is put on the baby, and taken off from the baby or while it is on the baby, since it is exposed to friction effect. The pulling strip produces a shear force to facilitate the breakage of the microcapsule along its upper portions, thus releases the perfume from the peeled part of the pulling strip. [2]

Looking at the principle of preventing odor from urine in the diaper, the odor is entrapped by the capsule being torn off and the perfume exploding or by the controlled release of the perfume through diffusion over time. The odor is entrapped with a structure like zeolite or activated carbon. [2]

The amount of perfume used in the diaper in the market is subject to the control of the manufacturer’s preference by changing the following parameters:

  • Microcapsule size and wall thickness
  • Type of connector used
  • Type of binder used
  • Amount and type of perfume used
  • Tearing/explosion strength of microcapsules
  • Number and distribution of microcapsules
  • Adhesion resistance of a binder according to the breaking resistance of microcapsules

Microcapsules can be made by chemical encapsulation or by mechanical encapsulation. These different techniques lead to production of microcapsules in different sizes, alternative materials for composition of the capsule shell and various different functional materials inside the shell.  Attaching the binder (with microcapsules) is possible by methods of air knife, engraving and pressing including silk screening, gravure coating and flexographic techniques. The binder (with microcapsules) can be applied as a continuous or discontinuous pattern on the outer surface of the backsheet. [2]

In another study, as shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4, a study was conducted for lotion application on the topsheet layer, which is the top layer of the diaper contacting the baby skin, was studied. Lotion application on the topsheet was conducted in 2 different ways:

  1. Application of lotion on the topsheet raw material before combining with other raw materials making the diaper

Figure 3: Spraying lotion directly on the topsheet raw material [3]

  1. Application of lotion on the topsheet, which is the top layer of final product during diaper production

Figure 4: Spraying the lotion directly on the topsheet of finished product during diaper production [3]

The amount of lotion composition applied to the topsheet depends on the proportion of the molten lotion composition to the sprayed amount from the spray station and to the speed parameters at which the conveyor belt passes under the spray station. [3]

In the study, the benefits of the lotion applied to the topsheet are explained as follows:

  • The lotion composition changes the skin’s surface energy, and forms a “barrier” to reduce the skin’s interaction with the feces.
  • It makes it easier to clean by reducing the tendency of feces to adhere to the skin.
  • Less lotion is required to apply the desired level of therapeutic or protective lotion. [3]

Looking at the lotion and/or perfume applications recorded in the literature, it is observed that the works carried out by application areas with microcapsule applications are limited due to their difficulty of use in diaper production lines working at high speeds. At high speed and in long production lines, microcapsules cause breaking of the capsule due to mechanical stretching and pressing forces they are subjected to while passing through conveyors, rollers and printing equipment. For this reason, the lotion and/or perfume is released before the product enters in the package. In cases where the lotion is applied to the top layer of the diaper such as topsheet, however, the lotion plugs the liquid passages of the nonwoven fabric layer, and blocks the capillary paths, thus prevents the urine transmission to the substrate. And this affects the diaper’s critical performance parameters such as STT (strike through time) and the amount of wetness released into the skin (rewetting). In this study, lotion and perfume applications are examined whereby lotion and perfume are easily applied in production lines and they positively affect the diaper’s critical performance parameters. Since lotion and perfume applications are conducted at the same time in the study, it will be referred to as lotion application in the following chapter’s of the study. Many parametric studies on the type of lotion used, application area, application method and odor density were carried out. The studies were compared with the lotion application of the reference product. The lotion application method is applied on the reference product with an air pressure of 1.5 bar. The lotion tank in the air-pressure system is as shown in Figure 5. Application on the diaper with air-pressure lotion application equipment is shown in Figure 6.

Figure 5: The lotion application tank in the air-pressure system

Figure 6: Application to baby diaper with air pressurized lotion application equipment

MATERIAL AND METHOD

The trials consisting of numerous parametric studies have been conducted for the case where the existing odor density is optimized with the applied lotion amount while changing the used lotion type and lotion application area, odor notes are optimized in the new lotion type, no stain observed on the baby diaper together with the new lotion application area and corrosion is minimized with elimination of water based lotion use in the production system and diaper performance is improved while making all these changes. Nordson LP 90 lotion application system has been used as an alternative to the reference air pressurized lotion application system during the studies and the visual of the system is provided in Figure 7.

Figure 7: Nordson LP 90 lotion application system

 

  1. 1st Parametric Study for Baby Diaper Lotion Type, Application Area, System and Conditions

The trials no. 1-12 from 23 trials set out in Table 1 have been performed with Nordson LP90 system by using oil based lotion 1 containing 5% perfume with no allergen substance, designed compatible with the baby skin. The trials no. 13-23 have been performed by using water based lotion, air pressurized lotion application system containing the same 5% perfume. The trial no. 23 is the study representing the reference and where 5% water based lotion is conducted with air pressurized lotion application system in 1.5 bar.

Table 1: Trial list of 1st Parametric Study for Baby Diaper Lotion Type, Application Area, System and Conditions

  Hertz Bar Lotion Application Area Application System Lotion Type
1 50 Under Absorbent Core Nordson LP90 Oil Based Lotion 1
2 60 Under Absorbent Core Nordson LP90 Oil Based Lotion 1
3 70 Under Absorbent Core Nordson LP90 Oil Based Lotion 1
4 40 Inner Backsheet Nordson LP90 Oil Based Lotion 1
5 50 Inner Backsheet Nordson LP90 Oil Based Lotion 1
6 60 Inner Backsheet Nordson LP90 Oil Based Lotion 1
7 40 Outer Backsheet Nordson LP90 Oil Based Lotion 1
8 30 Outer Backsheet Nordson LP90 Oil Based Lotion 1
9 20 Outer Backsheet Nordson LP90 Oil Based Lotion 1
10 40 Leg Elastic Edge Nordson LP90 Oil Based Lotion 1
11 50 Leg Elastic Edge Nordson LP90 Oil Based Lotion 1
12 30 Leg Elastic Edge Nordson LP90 Oil Based Lotion 1
13 1.5 Leg Elastic Edge Air pressurized system Water Based Lotion
14 2 Leg Elastic Edge Air pressurized system Water Based Lotion
15 1.5 Inner Backsheet Air pressurized system Water Based Lotion
16 2 Inner Backsheet Air pressurized system Water Based Lotion
17 2.5 Inner Backsheet Air pressurized system Water Based Lotion
18 1.5 Outer Backsheet Air pressurized system Water Based Lotion
19 1 Outer Backsheet Air pressurized system Water Based Lotion
20 2 Under Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Water Based Lotion
21 1.5 Under Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Water Based Lotion
22 2.5 Under Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Water Based Lotion
23 1.5 On the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Water Based Lotion

 

  1. 2nd Parametric Study for Baby Diaper Lotion Type, Application Area, System and Conditions

The trials no. 1-8 from 17 trials set out in Table 2 have been performed with air pressurized system by using water based lotion containing the same 5% perfume. The trials no. 9-14 have been performed by using oil based lotion 2 and air pressurized lotion application system containing 5% perfume. The trials no. 15-17 have been performed by using oil based lotion 1 and Nordson LP90 lotion application system containing 5% perfume. The trial no. 1 is represented in 1.5 bar where 5% water based lotion is applied on the absorbent core in Table 2.

 

 

Table 2: Trial list of 2nd Parametric study for Different Lotion Type Applications with the Baby Diaper

  Hertz Bar Lotion Application Area Lotion Application System Lotion Type
1 1.5 bar On the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Water based Lotion
2 3 bar Under the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Water based Lotion
3 3.5 bar Under the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Water based Lotion
4 4 bar Under the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Water based Lotion
5 3 bar Inner Side of Backsheet Air pressurized system Water based Lotion
6 3.5 bar Inner Side of Backsheet Air pressurized system Water based Lotion
7 4 bar Inner Side of Backsheet Air pressurized system Water based Lotion
8 3 bar Under the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Oil Based Lotion 2
9 3.5 bar Under the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Oil Based Lotion 2
10 4 bar Under the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Oil Based Lotion 2
11 3 bar Inner Side of Backsheet Air pressurized system Oil Based Lotion 2
12 3.5 bar Inner Side of Backsheet Air pressurized system Oil Based Lotion 2
13 4 bar Inner Side of Backsheet Air pressurized system Oil Based Lotion 2
14 75 Hertz Under the Absorbent Core Nordson LP90 Oil Based Lotion 1
15 65 Hertz Inner Side of Backsheet Nordson LP90 Oil Based Lotion 1
16 70 Hertz Inner Side of Backsheet Nordson LP90 Oil Based Lotion 1
17 75 Hertz Inner Side of Backsheet Nordson LP90 Oil Based Lotion 1

 

  1. 3rd parametric study for Different Lotion System Applications with the Baby Diaper

6 trials set out in Table 3 have been performed with air pressurized lotion application system. The trial no. 1 represent the reference water based lotion containing 5% perfume. The trials no. 2-6 have been performed by using oil based lotion 1 and air pressurized lotion application system containing 5% perfume.

Table 3: Trial list of 3rd Parametric study for Different Lotion System Applications with the Baby Diaper

  Hertz Bar Lotion Application Area Lotion Application System Lotion Type
1 1.5 On the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Water Based Lotion
2 4 Under the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Oil Based Lotion 1
3 4.5 Under the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Oil Based Lotion 1
4 5 Under the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Oil Based Lotion 1
5 5.5 Under the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Oil Based Lotion 1
6 6 Under the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Oil Based Lotion 1

 

  1. 4th parametric study for Different Lotion Concentration Applications with the Baby Diaper

7 trials set out in Table 4 have been performed with air pressurized lotion application system. The trial no. 1 represent the reference water based lotion containing 5% perfume. The trials no. 2-4 have been performed with oil based lotion 1 containing 15% perfume and the trials no. 2-7 have been performed by using oil based lotion 1 and air pressurized lotion application system containing 10% perfume.

Table 4: Trial list of 4th Parametric study for Different Lotion Concentration Applications with the Baby Diaper

  Hertz Bar Lotion Application Area Lotion Application System Lotion Type
1 1.5 On the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Water Based Lotion
2 3 Under the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Oil Based Lotion 1- 15% perfume modified
3 4 Under the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Oil Based Lotion 1- 15% perfume modified
4 5 Under the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Oil Based Lotion 1- 15% perfume modified
5 3 Under the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Oil Based Lotion 1- 10% perfume modified
6 4 Under the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Oil Based Lotion 1- 10% perfume modified
7 5 Under the Absorbent Core Air pressurized system Oil Based Lotion 1- 10% perfume modified

 

RESULTS

  1. 1st Parametric Study Results for Baby Diaper Lotion Type, Application Area, System and Conditions
    • Odor Density Determination

Table 1 includes the trial list with 23 parameters where 5% oil based lotion 1 is performed by using Nordson LP90 system and 5% water based lotion is performed with air pressurized system. The first evaluation on the baby diaper samples conducted for identifying the odor density by the odor specialist. The trials have been compared with the reference sample no. 23 in Table 1. Those no. 3, 6, 7 and 11 having oil based lotion 1 have been found to have the similar odor density with the reference, evaluated by the odor specialist. Those no. 14 and 22 having water based lotion have been found to have the similar odor density the reference, evaluated by the odor specialist. The trials no. 1, 2, 4, 5, 8-10, 12, 13, 15-21 included in Table 1 have failed in terms of odor density when compared with the reference and they have been disqualified for the following tests.

  • Stain control

It has been investigated whether or not there is any stain resulting from lotion application by conducting visual controls for the trials no. 3, 6, 7, 11, 14 and 22 in Table 1 whose odor density parameter is found to be similar to the reference. The trial samples for the stain control have been compared with the reference no. 23. The visual of the reference sample is provided in Figure-8.

Figure 8: Reference sample no. 23

Stain formation has been found on the backsheet surface in the trial no. 3. The visual of the stained sample is provided in Figure-9.

Figure 9: Lotion stain in the sample no. 3 in Table 1.

No stain formation has been detected on the baby diaper in the trial no. 6-7.

No stain formation has been detected on the baby diaper in the trial no. 11.

Stain formation has been found on the leg elastics area in the trial no. 14. The visual of the stained sample is provided in Figure-10.

Figure 10: Lotion stain in the sample no. 14 in Table 1.

No stain formation has been detected on the baby diaper in the trial no. 22.

  • Performance control

Table 5: Performance results of Trial 1

  3 6 No. 11 & 14 22 No. 23
3. Rewet (gr) 0.39 0.45 0.95 1.44
3. STT (sn) 64 67 63 55
Lotion Type Oil Based Lotion 1 Oil Based Lotion 1 Oil based Lotion 1 & Water Based Lotion Water Based Water Based
Lotion Application System Nordson Nordson Nordson & Air Pressurized System Air Pressurized System Air Pressurized System

 

Rewet performances of the trials no. 3 and 6 are significantly better when compared with the reference no. 23 according to the data shown in Table 5. STT performances are close to the reference and there is no significant difference in terms of performance with the reference. As the lotion applied on the leg elastics edge no. 11 and 14 has not affected rewet and STT performance of core, so performance has not been evaluated here. In the trial no. 22, rewet performance is better when compared with the reference. But, no performance improvement has been observed as it has been observed in the trial no. 3 and 6. As the lotion applied on the outer surface of the backsheet, backsheet couldn’t get dried immediately on outer side of the fabric in the trial no. 7. Therefore, this application has been found to be difficult in practice and performance evaluation has not been conducted.

  1. 2nd Parametric Study Results for Baby Diaper Lotion Type, Application Area, System and Conditions

 

  • Odor Density Determination

Table 2 includes the trial list with 17 parameters where 5% oil based lotion 1 is performed by using Nordson LP90 system and 5% oil based lotion 2 and 5% water based lotion have been performed by using air pressurized system. The first evaluation on the baby diaper samples has been conducted for identifying the odor density by the odor specialist. The results of the trials have been compared with the reference sample no. 1 in Table 2. Those no. 2, 3 and 4 having water based lotion have been found to have the similar/better odor density with the reference, evaluated by the odor specialist. The trial no. 14 conducted by using oil based lotion 1 have been found to have the similar/better odor density with the reference, evaluated by the odor specialist. The trials no. 5-13 and 15-17 included in Table 2 have failed the odor density test when compared with the reference and they have been disqualified for the following tests.

  • Stain control

It has been investigated whether or not there is any stain resulting from lotion application by conducting visual controls for the trials no. 2, 3, 4 and 14 in Table 2 whose odor density parameter is found to be similar/better to the reference. The trial samples for the stain control have been compared with the reference no. 1. The visual of the reference sample is provided in Figure-8.

No stain formation has been detected on the baby diaper in the trial no. 2-4 and 14.

  • Performance control

Table 6: Performance results of the Trial 2

No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 14
3. Rewet (gr) 1.42 1.27 1.19 1.14 0.87
3. STT (sn) 64 70 71 69 60
Lotion Type Water Based Lotion Water Based Lotion Water Based Lotion Water Based Lotion Oil Based Lotion 1
Lotion Application System Air Pressurized System Air Pressurized System Air Pressurized System Air Pressurized System Nordson LP90 System

 

Rewet performance of the trial no. 14 is significantly better when compared with the reference no. 1 according to the data shown in Table 6. STT performances are close to the reference and there is no significant difference in terms of performance with the reference. Rewet performance has been better when compared with the reference in the trials no. 2, 3 and 4; however, no performance improvement has been observed as it has been observed in the trial no. 14.

  1. 3rd Parametric Study Results for Baby Diaper Lotion Type, Application Area and Conditions
    • Odor Density Determination

Table 3 includes the trial list with 6 parameters where 5% oil based lotion 1 and 5% water based lotion have been performed by using air pressurized lotion application system. The first evaluation on the baby diaper samples conducted for identifying the odor density by the odor specialist. The results of the trials have been compared with the reference sample no. 1 in Table 3. Required odor density similar to the reference has not been acquired in all samples according to the evaluation by the odor specialist.

  • Stain control

The trial samples for the stain control given in Table 3 have been compared with the reference no. 1. The visual of the reference sample is provided in Figure-8.

No stain formation has been detected on the baby diaper in the trial no. 2-6.

 

  • Performance control

Table 7: Performance results of Trial 3

  No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5 No. 6
3. Rewet (gr) 1.46 0.12 0.20 0.17 0.15 0.21
3. STT (sn) 68 62 66 61 70 59
Lotion Type Water Based Lotion Oil Based Lotion 1 Oil Based Lotion 1 Oil Based Lotion 1 Oil Based Lotion 1 Oil Based Lotion 1
Lotion Application System Air Pressurized System Air Pressurized System Air Pressurized System Air Pressurized System Air Pressurized System Air Pressurized System

 

Rewet performances of the trials no. 2-6 are significantly better when compared with the reference no. 1 according to the data shown in Table 7. STT performances are close to the reference and there is no significant difference in terms of performance with the reference.

  1. 4th Parametric Study Results for Baby Diaper Lotion Type, Application Area and Conditions
    • Odor Density Determination

Table 4 includes the trial list with 7 parameters where 10% and 15% oil based lotion 1 and 5% water based lotion have been performed by using air pressurized lotion application system. The first evaluation on the baby diaper samples conducted for identifying the odor density by the odor specialist. The results of the trials have been compared with the reference sample no. 1 in Table 4. Odor density of the sample no. 2 evaluated by the odor specialist has been found similar to the reference. As odor density of the samples no. 3-4-6-7 is higher than the reference and odor density of the sample no. 5 is weaker than the reference, they have been disqualified from the evaluations.

  • Stain control

The trial samples in Table 4 have been compared with the reference no. 1 for the stain control. The visual of the reference sample is provided in Figure-8.

No stain formation has been detected on the baby diaper in the trials no. 2-7.

  • Performance control

Table 8: Performance results of Trial 4

  No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5 No. 6 No. 7

 

3. Rewet (gr) 1.46 0.27 0.30 0.25 0.35 0.38 0.29
3. STT (sn) 68 62 66 61 62 59 65
Lotion Type Water Based Lotion Oil Based Lotion 1- 15% perfume modified Oil Based Lotion 1- 15% perfume modified Oil Based Lotion 1- 15% perfume modified Oil Based Lotion 1- 10% perfume modified Oil Based Lotion 1- 10% perfume modified Oil Based Lotion 1- 10% perfume modified
Lotion Application System Air Pressurized System Air Pressurized System Air Pressurized System Air Pressurized System Air Pressurized System Air Pressurized System Air Pressurized System

 

Rewet performances of the trials no. 2-6 are significantly better when compared with the reference no. 1 according to the data shown in Table 8. STT performances are close to the reference and there is no significant difference in terms of performance with the reference.

FINDINGS and DISCUSSION

The samples related to each trial performed under parametric studies have been respectively subjected to the following evaluations:

  • Determination of odor density similarity between trial sample and reference sample by the odor specialist
  • Determination of lotion stain control on the product in the trial samples which odor density is detected to be similar with the reference sample
  • Determination of the finished product performance tests results which odor density is detected to be similar with respect to the reference sample and no stain observed on it

 

The findings related to the study conducted accordingly are as follows:

23 trials have been conducted in the 1st parametric study contained in Table 1. The trial no. 23 represents the reference and the other 22 trials have been compared with this reference sample. The samples related with these trials have been firstly evaluated by the odor specialist for determination of the odor density. The trials which odor density are found to be similar with the reference sample no. 23 are the trials no. 3, 6, 7, 11, 14 and 22. As odor density similar to the reference has not been determined in the other trials, they have been noted as failed. As lotion stain has been determined in the trials no. 3 and 14 that are successful in determination of odor density, these trials have been noted as failed. As it is estimated when the lotion application area in the process is taken into consideration in the trials no. 7 and 11, this will cause complication in the process during routine production, backsheet inner side and leg elastics edge applications have been removed from the trials in the following trials. The trials no. 6 and 22 have successfully completed the criteria of odor density, stain and performance in the list of parametric studies in Table 1.

17 trials have been conducted in the parametric study contained in Table 2. The trial no. 1 represents the reference and the other 16 trials have been compared with this reference sample. The samples related with these trials have been firstly evaluated by the odor specialist for determination of the odor density. The odor density of the trials no. 2, 3, 4 and 6 have been found successful when compared to reference sample by odor specialist. As odor density similar to the reference has not been determined in the other trials, they have been noted as failed. No stain occured for these 2, 3, 4 and 6 trials and noted as successful in terms of stain control.  When comparing for the final product performance, all samples have better rewet and STT performance from the reference sample no. 1, they have been deemed successful. However, there is still an area to be improved for rewet performance.

6 trials have been conducted in the parametric study contained in Table 3. The trial no. 1 represents the reference and the other 5 trials have been compared with this reference sample. The samples related to these trials have been firstly evaluated by the odor specialist for determination of the odor density. Since similar odor density has not been achieved in all trial samples with respect to the reference no. 1, all trials are notes as failed.

7 trials have been conducted in the parametric study contained in Table 4. The trial no. 1 represents the reference and the other 6 trials have been compared with this reference sample. The samples related to these trials have been firstly evaluated by the odor specialist for determination of the odor density. Only odor density of the trial no. 2 has been founded to be similar with the reference sample no. 1 and have been noted as successful. Since the similar odor density has not been achieved in the other trials, they have been noted as failed. The trial no. 2 have become successful in the criteria of odor, stain and performance controls.

CONCLUSION

Given all parametric trial studies conducted in Table 1, Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4, similar odor density with respect to the reference, no lotion stain and the best finished product rewet performance is achieved in the trial no. 2 given in Table 4 with 0.27 gr rewet performance. Upon the release of the diapers produced in this manner, the expectation of the consumer will have been met in the most accurate way.

REFERANCES

[1] Dyer, D., “Seven Decades of Disposible Diapers: A record of Continuous Innovation and Expanding Benefit”, 2005, Edana.

[2] EP0957869B1, “Diaper Having Perfume Zones”, P&G, 2016

[3] US6118041A, “Diaper Having a Lotioned Topsheet”, P&G, 2000